Study of Hybrid Performance of the Methods Applied for Recycling Aq Qala‑Industrial Park Effluent

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Environmental Health Research Center, Faculty of Health, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran

2 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Shoushtar Faculty of Medical Sciences, Shoushtar, Iran

3 Department of Environment and Energy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


Aim: Currently, recycling of secondary effluent can be used sustainably as a new water source to minimize the water consumption in areas which are exposed to water crisis. Hence, it is necessary to appraise hybrid advanced treatment technologies performance and to determine the best alternative for reusing secondary effluent of industrial park in full-scale. Materials and Methods: The secondary effluent (biological-treated) of the centralized industrial park wastewater treatment plant (Aq Qala, Golestan province, Iran) is introduced into combined systems such as (1) sand filter (SF) and membrane bioreactor (MBR), (2) SF, MBR and granular activated carbon (GAC) (3) SF and GAC (4) SF, MBR, GAC, and reverse osmosis (RO), as the hybrid advanced scenarios. Results: The effluent of SF/MBR/GAC/RO showed the highest quality (>99% removal efficiency). In this scenario, pH, silica, manganese, iron, total suspended solids, turbidity, total coliform, and chemical oxygen demand (COD), alkalinity, hardness, total dissolved solids (TDS), chloride, and sulfate were determined 6.93 ± 0.19, 1.4 ± 0.6 mg/L, not detectable (ND), ND, <2 ± 0.2 mg/L, <1 Nephelometric Turbidity unit (NTU), ND and <2 ± 0.2 mg/L, 54.8 ± 1 2.5 mg/L, 50 ± 17 mg/L, 100 ± 14.89 mg/L, 68 ± 10.9 mg/L, and 44 ± 3.67 mg/L were observed in the range of product water standard for sensitive industries. Also, the maximum of efficiency of SF/MBR, SF/MBR/GAC, and SF/GAC systems was obtained 97.75% (as total coliforms), 62.65% (as COD), and 55.8% (as COD), respectively. Other parameters removed slight about 2% to 40%. However, hardness, alkalinity, and manganese concentrations not reduced after these systems (0% efficiency). Conclusions: The hybrid system of SF/MBR/GAC/RO was produced a clean and suitable water supply for the sensitive industries (e.g., intermediate-pressure boilers, cooling water, textile, etc.) of Aq Qala industrial park according to the environmental protection agency standards.


  • Receive Date: 03 May 2021
  • Revise Date: 27 February 2023
  • Accept Date: 03 December 2021