Heavy metal distribution frequency in Iranian and imported rice varieties marketed in central Iran, Yazd, 2012

Document Type : Original Article


1 Food Security Research Center, and Department of Food Technology, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

2 Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Environment Research Center, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran


Aims: This study aimed to determine the concentration of heavy metals including lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As) in rice samples in Yazd markets. Materials and Methods: In this study, 108 rice samples were collected from 36 different brands including 26 imported and 10 Iranian rice varieties from July-December 2011. Determination of heavy metals was carried out by wet ashing and digestion methods following graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Results: The average concentrations of lead in both Iranian and imported samples were 328.3 ± 81.44 and 254.55 ± 77.2 μg/kg, respectively, well above the safe limit set by Iranian standard, whereas mean concentrations of cadmium and arsenic were both below their permissible limit. In homemade rice samples, their concentration levels were shown to be 37.25 ± 23.39 and 33.5 ± 18.35 μg/kg, respectively. However, for imported products, their levels were 43.71 ± 13.74 and 87.55 ± 72.99 μg/kg, respectively. Conclusion: Deterministic estimation of exposure to heavy metals from rice showed that there was no health issue concerning exposure to toxic metals through rice intake in Iran when potential risk of each heavy metal is considered individually, cumulative risk assessment must be applied in future studies.


Volume 2, November
November 2013
Pages 1-5
  • Receive Date: 03 February 2023
  • Accept Date: 03 February 2023