Application of Iranian natural zeolite and blast furnace slag as slow sand filters media for water softening

Document Type : Original Article


Environment Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Isfahan, Iran and Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, IUMS, Isfahan, Iran


Aims: The aim of this study was to determine water softening behavior of Iranian natural zeolite and blast furnace slag (BFS) as materials of slow sand filters (SSFs) in small communities' water resources. Materials and Methods: Three filters setups were prepared from the plexiglass tubes each by 9 cm inner diameter and 120 cm height. The used filter media were included conventional sand, BFS and Iranian natural zeolite. The filtration rate was adjusted between 0.1 and 0.24 m 3 /m 2 /h and hence that the flow rate of each filter was 1.5 L/h. Turbidity, total hardness and EC of water samples were analyzed before and after the treatment process according to standard methods. Results: The mean turbidity removal efficiencies in the studied filters were 98.82%, 98.98% and 98.97% for conventional SSF, slag modified filter (SMF) and zeolite modified filter (ZMF), respectively. The mean EC reduction efficiencies in SSF, SMF and ZMF also were similar and were 9.99%, 11.02% and 10.73%, respectively. The mean total hardness removal efficiencies in SSF, SMF and ZMF were 21.19%, 51.95% and 66.3%, respectively. Conclusions: It is concluded from this study that modified filter media, SMF and ZMF, are very good options for total hardness and turbidity removals in communities that have some problem with this parameter.


Volume 3, August
August 2014
Pages 58-69
  • Receive Date: 02 February 2023
  • Accept Date: 02 February 2023