Aims: In this study, the removal of nitrate was investigated using nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) extracted from sugarcane bagasse. Materials and Methods: NCC was extracted by acid hydrolysis of bagasse at 40°C for 45 min and then used as an absorbent for the removal of nitrate. The properties of absorbent were evaluated by atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The effect of various parameters including pH, initial concentration of nitrate, adsorbent dose, and exposure time was investigated on the removal of nitrate. Results: NCC was obtained in a diameter and length of <14.7 and 500 nm, respectively. Optimal conditions for removal of nitrate were determined in the initial nitrate concentration, adsorbent dose, pH, and exposure time of 100 mg/L, 6, 3 g/L, and 100 min, respectively. In optimal conditions, the maximum adsorption of nitrate was 8.33 mg/g. Conclusion: The highest efficiency of nitrate removal at pH, 6 was obtained as 25%. The results showed that the NCC, extracted from bagasse, could be used as a very effective adsorbent to remove nitrate from water and wastewater resources.